White to off-white fine ceramic products with porous body; raw materials: pure white burning clays, Kaolin, quartz, feldspar or calcite. A distinction is hard faience (Feldspatsteingut), shards of fire at about 1300 °C; Kalksteingut, shards of fire at 1100 °C, mixed pottery, shards of fire at about 1200 °C, and Tonsteingut, shards of fire also at 1200 °C. The second or final firing takes place at 1000-1100 °C. The real pottery glaze is a fritted lead glaze and boric acid. For hard Stoneware sometimes also a soft porcelain glaze is used, which burns at 1300 °C. - The pottery was invented around 1720 in England (Staffordshire) and improved by J. Wedgwood in 1765, it replaced due to favorable economic conditions of production in the 2nd Half of the 18th Century largely faience and porcelain in the mass production of tableware.